The potential of workers to be affected by different regulatory flows makes the current allocation difficult to calculate; For example, part of their compensation and terms can be paid by bonuses and some of it can be settled by another form of agreements. Table 4.2 contains some indications. It suggests that the proportion of workers who paid exactly the premium quota in 2006 was relatively low – 19%.5 What were the main alternatives to rewards? The category of registered individual agreements, particularly federal ACCORDS, was small (3.1 per cent). An important category consisted of unregistered individual contracts covering 31.7% of employees, but it should be a heterogeneous group composed of certain employees in an unregulated sector, mainly governed by national contracts, with certain employees whose wages are determined mainly by an increase or agreement, but who benefit from additional remuneration granted by their employer. , known as the Over-Award. We then registered collective agreements that represent 38.1% of employees. These data do not distinguish between union and non-union collective agreements, but it is likely that there will be many more trade union agreements. The rules mentioned in collective agreements most often concern working hours. These issues include, for example, systems for balancing shift work time, shift work pay and days off. Although no trend in higher education is universal, there are a number of topics that come up regularly in every global survey of collective bargaining. In many countries, basic labour rights are still lacking, in others civil society is underdeveloped or the state is so hostile that higher education workers do not have effective collective representation.

Content In principle, collective agreements can deal with all issues within the scope of the collective autonomy of social partners. However, there are a number of exceptions to this principle. On the one hand, the law gives a positive delineation of the content of the agreements. Article 5 of the Collective Relations Act stipulates that they may govern the reciprocal rights and obligations of workers and employers; relations between states that are signatories to an agreement; dispute resolution procedures resulting from individual employment contracts, the introduction of conciliation, conciliation and arbitration mechanisms. This formulation reflects the distinction made by lawyers between the mandatory and prescriptive parts of collective agreements. In addition, the law (mainly in Article 6) contains a negative delineation of the content of the agreements. First, the general limitations arise from the limits of collective autonomy itself: collective agreements must not regulate economic activities with regard to the working time of companies, the tax system and price formation. Second, there are a number of limitations on autonomy arising from compliance with constitutional and ordinary provisions, a general restriction that stems from the hierarchy of legal sources that the law itself establishes, stating that collective agreements should not restrict the exercise of fundamental constitutional rights and should not benefit from binding legislation. The prohibition of trade union affiliations (closed store) is a consequence of this.